AU Watch

Chad

Brief Overview

A landlocked Sahelian country in central Africa, Chad grapples with security challenges associated with conflicts in bordering countries as well as the impacts of climate change, which is exacerbating desertification and the drying up of Lake Chad.

Political Context

President Idriss Deby Itno and his party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement, have dominated Chadian politics since ascending to power in December 1990. The new constitution, promulgated in 2018, allows the President to run for two additional consecutive terms of six years when his current term comes to an end in 2021.

Legislative and municipal elections, which were postponed several times, are expected to be held in the first quarter of 2020.

Economic Overview

  • Chad joined the list of oil-producing countries in 2003 and since then its economy has been heavily dependent on oil. The country’s previously agrarian economy saw per capita GDP grow from about $497 in 2001/02 (which was less than half of the average in Sub-Saharan Africa) to almost $823 in 2017.
  • After two years of a deep recession caused by the drop in oil prices, the economy showed signs of recovery in 2018, with the GDP growth rate projected to reach 2.6% as a result of the rise in oil prices and in oil and agricultural production.
  • The external current account deficit fell from 6.6% to 4.7% between 2018 and 2019 as a result of the hike in oil prices and strong oil export performance. The government is continuing its fiscal accommodation efforts by mobilizing revenue and controlling recurrent costs.
  • In June 2018, Chad finalized the restructuring of its oil-collateralized loan with the Glencore petroleum company. This agreement and the planned clearance of arrears is expected to reduce the public debt-to-GDP ratio from 51.9% in 2017 to 41.2% in 2020. Nevertheless, the risk of external debt overhang remains high.
  • In the medium term, oil exports will remain a key driver of GDP growth. Moreover, the privatization of the public cotton company is expected to considerably improve the contribution of the agricultural sector to GDP growth.
  • Moderate growth is expected in 2019 owing to an anticipated drop in oil prices. However, the projected increase in oil production will stimulate investment and exports in 2020.
  • Chad’s economy remains fragile and is vulnerable to considerable risk, such as oil price volatility and regional insecurity. Chad would benefit from investment in key sectors, such as infrastructure, education, and health, to mitigate these risks.

Full name: The Republic of Chad

Population: 11.8 million (UN, 2012)

Capital: N’Djamena

Area: 1.28 million sq km (495,800 sq miles)

Major languages: French, Arabic

Major religions: Islam, Christianity

Life expectancy: 49 years (men), 52 years (women) (UN)

Monetary unit: 1 CFA (Communaute Financiere Africaine) franc = 100 centimes

Main exports: Cotton, oil, livestock, textiles

GNI per capita: US $720 (World Bank, 2011)

President: Idriss Déby

Social Context and Development Challenges

  • With more than 450,000 refugees from Sudan, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria, Chad continues to grapple with the consequences of tension in neighboring countries and hosts a high number of refugees, who represent approximately 4% of the country’s total population.
  • Although Chad had made progress on poverty reduction, with a decline in the national poverty rate from 55% to 47% between 2003 and 2011, the number of poor people is projected to increase from 4.7 million to 6.3 million between 2011 and 2019.
  • Chad occupies last place on the World Bank’s Human Capital IndexA child born in Chad today will be 29% less productive in adulthood than a child who received a quality education and benefited from appropriate health services. Moreover, 20% of Chadian children will not make it to their fifth birthday, and 40% of children suffer from stunting, which can have long-term implications for their cognitive development. Between the ages of 4 and 18, on average, children in Chad spend no more than five years in school.
  • Chad also has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in central Africa, with 856 deaths for every 100,000 live births.  This phenomenon is aggravated by the high number of early pregnancies (164.5 births per 1,000 adolescents aged 15 to 19), which often lead to complications for the adolescents.

Important Addresses and Contacts

Physical Contacts of the Presidency

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Physical Contacts of the Prime Minister’s Office

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Physical Contacts of the National Assembly

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Physical Contacts of the Ministry of Interior

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Physical Contacts of the Ministry of Justice

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Physical Contacts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

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Physical Contacts of the Ministry of Women’s Affairs

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Physical Contacts of the National Human Rights Commission

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Physical Contacts of the Police

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Physical Contacts of the Military

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Important Information of Key Human Rights Issues in Chad


Number Prisons in Chad

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Corruption in Chad

 

What are the current and ongoing human rights issues in Chad?

 

(1) Freedom of the Press

 

(2) Human Rights Defenders Issues

 

(3) Impunity

Membership of African Regional Organisations

 

African Union (AU)

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Key Regional Human Rights & Governance InstrumentsSigned and Ratified

 

  1. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

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2.Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights

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  1. Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights

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4.Protocol on Amendments to the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights

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  1. Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa

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  1. African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption

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  1. African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance

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  1. Statute of the African Union Commission on International Law (AUCIL)

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  1. OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa

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  1. African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention)

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  1. Protocol to the Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community Relating to Free Movement of Persons, Right of Residence and Right of Establishment

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  1. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

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  1. Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Older Persons

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  1. Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Africa

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